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الموضوع: Effects of music and sound on human health

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    الصورة الرمزية miss.white
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    افتراضي Effects of music and sound on human health

    Effects of music and sound on human health

    Author: Roger W. Wicke, Ph.D

    (1)
    Historical references to the health effects of music


    The use of music and sound to improve health is not a novel idea

    Both harmful and beneficial effects of music have been recognized by the ancient Greeks and Romans, including Pythagoras, Democritus, Aristotle, Galen, and Celsus

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) refers to the qualities of specific instruments and sounds and their beneficial effects on various organs

    Plato, Cicero, and Seneca all believed that music profoundly affected the behavior of entire societies and that the state should regulate the performance of music and prohibit certain types because of their potentially harmful effects

    While such sentiments may be extreme, Plato's views remind us that the modern benign attitude toward music as mere "auditory cheesecake" contradicts the more ancient view of music as a powerful cultural force, for good or evil

    According to many musicologists, music is a form of language or communication that directly accesses the emotions without the intermediation of words and rational thought

    Oswald Spengler, in his history text "Decline of the West", devoted several chapters to the role of art and music in the stability of civilizations

    He observed that musical traditions consistently reached their pinnacle of classical form and beauty before a civilization achieved its technical and political zenith, and that a general decline in artistic and musical forms augured its demise

    He predicted that foraten.net/?foraten.net/?foraten.net/?foraten.net/?d on the popularity of extreme romanticism and excessive sentimentality, dissonance, and 12-tone compositional styles in music of the early 20th century Europe, Western civilization was fated to decline, even as its technical and scientific wizardry promised great wonders

    One can only surmise that had Spengler lived to witness punk rock, heavy metal, techno, and rap music in the context of late 20th century America, he would have become even more convinced of his theory's correctness

    Given the strong opinions of ancient physicians, philosophers, and statesmen about the effects of music, both positive and negative, our next question should be "Does modern research support these opinions in any way?"

    People living in modern industrialized nations have learned through painful experience that many of the wonders of technology have deadly side effects

    Nuclear power was originally promoted as being clean and safe alternative to burning coal and oil

    The ubiquitous plastics that promised to make our lives convenient are now recognized to be a major source of potent and dangerous hormone-disrupting chemicals

    Excessive television viewing is now being recognized as a factor in learning and behavioral disorders in children

    Could it be possible that music, which many of us take for granted as benign background noise, could have unrecognized effects, both harmful and beneficial











    Research studies on effects of music on plants and animals

    (2)
    The Mozart Effect

    Much of the current research in music therapy focuses on proving that music has measurable physiological and psychological effects

    Such effects are not difficult to find or to measure, and are revealed by studies of human, animal, and plant behavior, EEG recordings, hormone assays, and cellular growth patterns

    Frequently these results have been misinterpreted and exaggerated by the popular media and by marketing people, which is unfortunate, since the documented effects are remarkable in themselves

    The so-called "Mozart Effect" is one such phenomenon that has resulted in much confusion

    The "Mozart Effect" is foraten.net/?foraten.net/?foraten.net/?foraten.net/?d on research by Frances Rauscher et al., who determined that listening to 10 minutes of Mozart's "Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major" briefly increased scores 48% (relative to control groups) on the paper-folding task, a component of the Stanford-Binet intelligence test that measures spatio-temporal reasoning abilities.

    Moreover, the effects were transient, lasting only about 10 minutes, and performance on non-spatial reasoning tasks was unaffected.

    Such results seem to be unique to the music of Mozart, whereas music not as highly structured did not have measureable effects

    Other researchers have demonstrated that compositions of other classical composers such as J.S. Bach show similar benefits

    Listening to a few minutes of Mozart does not permanently make one smarter; however, the results of Rauscher's study, modest though they may seem, are profound

    If such seemingly benign stimuli affect even momentary intelligence, one might wonder whether people exposed to specific types of music and sounds over extended periods would experience proportionately greater effects, both positive and negative








    "
    (3)
    Effect of music on cortisol levels in humans

    Different types of music may significantly affect blood cortisol levels

    Cortisol and adrenaline are two "stress" hormones that are secreted by the adrenal glands in response to ACTH

    In one experiment, patients who had just been informed of their need for imminent surgery, were tested for blood cortisol concentrations after listening to a calming piece of music, chosen by each patient in consultation with a music therapist; cortisol levels were reduced by 50% compared with the control group that did not listen to any music

    In another experiment, this time with healthy people, similar results were obtained by playing sitar music by Ravi Shankar, whereas a waltz by Johann Strauss and a rhythmically irregular, somewhat discordant piece by contemporary composer W.H. Henze had no effect

    Elevated cortisol levels are normal and desirable in certain circumstances, including high-intensity exercise

    Trained runners are able to induce high levels of cortisol quickly without the aid of energizing musical accompaniment, but it was found that such music could aid untrained runners in producing such levels faster

    Energizing music with a fast tempo had this effect, but slow, calming music did not, as might be expected. Perhaps sports team managers have always known this, thus the popularity of strident tunes played by brass bands before and during games to whip both players and spectators into a frenzy

    One also might wonder whether certain types of agitating music, such as rock or heavy metal may induce excessive cortisol over extended periods of time and become addictive, in a similar manner to the adrenal rush one gets from coffee



    (4)

    Music and its effects on plant growth
    Plants have been shown to significantly increase their rate of growth when stimulated by specific sound frequencies

    In the 1950's, Indian botanist T.C. Singh observed under a microscope the protoplasm streaming in an Asian aquatic plant, which normally increases at sunrise, and discovered that such streaming could be induced at other times of the day by activating an electrically driven tuning fork

    He then experimented with recorded South Indian violin music played to a wide variety of plants, with frequencies of the fundamental tones in the 100 to 600 Hz range; significantly increased growth rates resulted

    About the same time, a Canadian named Eugene Canby began subjecting test plots of wheat to recordings of violin sonatas by J.S. Bach, and found that yields increased by 66%

    Other tests in Russia, the U.S., and Canada with ultrasonic frequencies yielded similar increases in the growth rates of other plant species

    Various researchers then determined that the range of frequencies around 5000 Hz were especially potent in stimulating plant growth

    During the 1960's, researcher Dorothy Retallack determined that these frequencies were best administered in the form of classical music (compositions of J.S. Bach, Haydn, Beethoven, Brahms, Schubert, and other European 18th and 19th century composers; traditional North Indian music performed on sitar and tabla), played intermittently for several hours per day

    A Minnesota plant breeder named Dan Carlson collaborated with a music teacher named Michael Holtz to create an audio tape with a combination of frequencies centered about the 5000 Hz range, which Holtz immediately recognized as being very similar to the sound of a bird chorus at dawn

    Carlson then used this music to induce record-breaking growth rates in Purple Passion vine plants

    Retallack also experimented with various types of rock music to see what effects they would have on plant growth

    Plants "listening" to selections from Led Zeppelin, Vanilla Fudge, and Jimi Hendrix became stunted or gangly, with long stems and sparse leaf growth, some bending away from the sound source; after 16 days, most of these plants died


    Retallack also found that the discordant music of 20th century composers Arnold Schönberg and Anton von Webern also caused plants to atrophy, but not to the degree of the rock music

    Schönberg is considered to be the father of 12-tone music, characterized by a total "freedom" from harmonic contraints, wherein all 12 tones of the western musical scale are ideally considered to be of equal weight and value

    Twelve-tone principles of composition were eagerly embraced by avant garde faculty at music schools during the early 20th century, and over the following decades began to appear in popular music, and in background music for television and radio programs

    The 12-tone style is what gives music for horror and suspense films its particular capacity to shock and terrorize.


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    موضوع راقي بس اللي يقرة اول فقرة يعجز عن الباقي ههههههههه
    تحياااتي

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    الصورة الرمزية alkyl halide
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    حلووووووووووووو الموضوع
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    موضوع حلو

    و ترجمة كوكل ترانسلت احلى هههههههه

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    الصورة الرمزية ispoky
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    بالله لو كَاعدة ومترجمته انتي مو احسن من الكَوكَل؟؟؟؟؟



    يسلموووو عالموضوع


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    الصورة الرمزية LOST HEART
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    افتراضي

    Such effects are not difficult to find or to measure, and are revealed by studies of human, animal, and plant behavior, EEG recordings, hormone assays, and cellular growth patterns



    thanks for informations

  8. #8
    الصورة الرمزية beyaz gulum
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  10. #10
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    thanx for urs nice job mine

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